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Morisena nr. 2(18)/2020, anul V

2020 – un an al comemorărilor. 75 de ani de la deportările germanilor din România în U.R.S.S. şi de la terminarea celui de-al II-lea Război Mondial Deportarea, literatura germană din România și Securitatea

 
Kurzfassung: Die Studie des Journalisten und Gegenwartshistorikers William Totok (Berlin) fusst auf neueren Erkenntnissen, die Totok als Folge seiner systematischen Durchforstung der Bukarest Archive der Securitate (CNSAS) gewonnen hat. Der Autor geht auf die Haltung deutscher Antifaschisten, Gewerkschafter, Sozialdemokraten ein, die mit dem Einverständnis der rumänischen Kommunisten im Januar 1945 zur „Aufbauarbeit – eigentlich zur Zwangsarbeit – in die Sowjetunion verschleppt wurden (im Volksmund: „Rußlandverschleppung“). Rund 70.000 Rumäniendeutschen waren betroffen, etwa ein Zehnten ließ sein Leben dort, weitere ein-bis-zwei Zehnten verloren ihr Leben nach der Rückkehr vom Zwangsaufenthalt als Folge der dortigen unmenschlichen unmenschlichen Bedingungen. Totok geht auch auf die proletkultistische rumäniendeutsche Literatur der 1950er Jahre ein, die mit der propagandistischen „Begrüßung“ der Rückkehrer aus der Sowjetunion einsetzte, sowie auf die Ansätze zu einer Aufarbeitung der Rußlandverschleppung im Temeswarer „Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn“-Literaturkreis und der Verfolgung dieser Ansätze durch die Securitate-Spitzel, die auf diesen Literaturkreis angesetzt waren. Nicht zuletzt geht er kritisch auf die Ansätze einer Aufarbeitung der deportation in der rumänischen Literatur und im rumänischen Film nach 1989 ein.

Dascăli bănățeni la Alba Iulia (Partea a II-a): Dr. Petru Barbu (1864-1941)

 
Abstract: Petru Barbu (1864-1941), professor, manager, journalist, was born in Lugoj, on 7 May 1864, in a rich family of tradesmen and merchants. He attended the primary school in Lugoj and the secondary school in Beiuș, Blaj and Braşov. He studied theology in Cernăuţi, Graz and Berlin. He was a professor at the Theological Institute of Caransebeş (1892-1936), an editor of “Foaia diecezană” (1892-1908). He wrote religious schoolbooks. He was the founder and manager of Banca Poporală (People’s Bank) in Caransebeș, as well as a member of the High National Romanian Council.

Rolul culturii americane în prăbuşirea comunismului est-european

 
Abstract: The Cold War, which began immediately after the fall of World War II, which had a major period. The United States succeeded in operating in the community in Europe, through the Truman Doctrine (March 1947) and the Marshall Plan (June 1947).
In 1989, without enjoying the support of “the big brother from the east”, the Soviet Union, communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe collapsed successively on the basis of the so-called “principle of the domino”.
The twentieth century, an “American century”, is foreshadowed, however, it cannot be equated in the arithmetic sense, but rather, as a balance of maximum synthesis of the age.
The sympathy towards the United States and the American model manifests itself, lately, in the late 1980s and in the socialist state. The American experience is especially for central Europe and responds to the end of communist ideology, if it is not a “copy” model, then it may be a case of meditation and study.
Obviously, the American literature of the second half of the twentieth century also had an anti-communist tint, manifested with greater acuity in the 1980’s.
But, without a doubt, American media and cinema did not have a strong impact on the conscience of citizens from the south-east of Europe, within the Soviet sphere of the end of the Second World War. Freedom of the press was, in fact, inextricably linked to the efficiency of the American democratic system.
Media culture, a relatively recent historical phenomenon, will be a feared instrument of the United States in the overthrow of the communist regimes, being associated with bankruptcy in the country’s economies and with a growing distrust of the population in the political discourse in the party and state leadership. By means of express sales, the American media culture was a ray of hope of care, millions of citizens from the Iron Curtain space clashed, opposing decades in a row, but they cared and never lost confidence in the return of democracy and the present sympathy in America, considered possible for their salvation.

Nicolae Brînzeu – un duhovnic-cărturar în mijlocul mirenilor

 
Abstract: Considered undesirable by the atheist communist regime, Nicolae Brînzeu, a brilliant scholar and theologian, was arrested on 28 October 1948, together with the other Greek-Catholic hierarchs of Lugoj, Bishop Ioan Bălan and Canon Iosif Vezoc. He was assigned to compulsory residence at Neamţ and Căldăruşani monasteries and was imprisoned at Sighet. After his release, he was subjected to compulsory residence in Călăraşi, then in Orăştie. In 1954, he was allowed to return home, where he passed away on 30 December 1962. As a theologian, he published many studies on dogmatics, Christian books and schoolbooks for the students of the Greek-Catholic institutes.

„Cruciatul” Vlad Țepeș și organizarea armatei țării sale și a sistemului defensiv al acesteia

 
Abstract. When we refer to the remarkable merits of Vlad the Impaler as the head of state and of the armies, we cannot ignore his taking over a political-military conception that has its origin in the old Byzantine imperial tradition of crusade, Dracula being, undoubtedly, the first of our voivodes who rose to fight against the Ottoman Turks after the entry of Byzantium under the rule of Sultan Muhammad II the Conqueror. Of course, he also made this takeover because he considered himself the rightful follower of the anti-Ottoman struggle of the Basileus and the great Romanian rulers, especially after the death of John Hunyadi, "the last great European crusader". Seeking to strengthen and protect the royal authority and the economic and social-political bases of the anti-Ottoman resistance, Vlad the Impaler took numerous measures to strengthen his army, making full use of the revenues of the kingdom for its endowment and training, according to the requirements of the time.  Being "agile and capable as possible in the military affairs", a fact acknowledged even by his mortal enemies, the Ottoman Turks, the fierce Romanian voivode "increased and strengthened the military institution with people raised from the people to small ranks of boyars, exempt from taxes and benefits in exchange for military jobs". Dracula also paid special attention to the defense system of his country, strengthening him "with fortress cities, outpost forts on the probable directions of invasion and fortified monasteries".

Cacova sau Grădinari de Caraş. Însemnări monografice despre un habitat rural din Banatul Montan. Din preistorie până în veacul al XV-lea (III)

 
Abstract: The archaeological discoveries and information from various sources attest the continuity of Dacian and Dacian-Roman settlements in the miners’ communities of the Caraș region. Money treasures dating back to the Dacian times were discovered in the area. Banat is considered the province with the most pronounced Roman character. In the Middle Ages, a rural civilisation under Byzantine jurisdiction prevailed in these places. Here the Romanians had autonomous institutions, sedium valachicalium, congregatio generalis, courts and general assemblies.

Variașul în cărți poștale ilustrate. Istoricul cartofiliei locale (1920-1947)

 
Abstract: In the inter-war period, the importance and circulation of illustrated postcards decreased. The declining tendency continued in the post-war years. Today, postcards have become useless. The ten types of local inter-war postcards identified so far have several characteristics: poor quality paper and print, no decorative elements, the dramatic decrease of the number of editors etc. Nevertheless, the relatively large number of illustrated postcards put Variaș on top of the list of inter-war localities with printed postcards. Editor E. Winkler made a special contribution – two thirds of the Variaș inter-war postcard types belong to him. The local German community was involved in marketing the postcards. A factor that facilitated their circulation was the purchasing power of the inhabitants of Variaș in the inter-war period.

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