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Morisena nr. 1 (21)/2021

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Rolul culturii americane în prăbuşirea comunismului est-european

 
Abstract: The Cold War, which began immediately after the fall of World War II, which had a major period. The United States succeeded in operating in the community in Europe, through the Truman Doctrine (March 1947) and the Marshall Plan (June 1947).
In 1989, without enjoying the support of “the big brother from the east”, the Soviet Union, communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe collapsed successively on the basis of the so-called “principle of the domino”.
The twentieth century, an “American century”, is foreshadowed, however, it cannot be equated in the arithmetic sense, but rather, as a balance of maximum synthesis of the age.
The sympathy towards the United States and the American model manifests itself, lately, in the late 1980s and in the socialist state. The American experience is especially for central Europe and responds to the end of communist ideology, if it is not a “copy” model, then it may be a case of meditation and study.
Obviously, the American literature of the second half of the twentieth century also had an anti-communist tint, manifested with greater acuity in the 1980’s.
But, without a doubt, American media and cinema did not have a strong impact on the conscience of citizens from the south-east of Europe, within the Soviet sphere of the end of the Second World War. Freedom of the press was, in fact, inextricably linked to the efficiency of the American democratic system.
Media culture, a relatively recent historical phenomenon, will be a feared instrument of the United States in the overthrow of the communist regimes, being associated with bankruptcy in the country’s economies and with a growing distrust of the population in the political discourse in the party and state leadership. By means of express sales, the American media culture was a ray of hope of care, millions of citizens from the Iron Curtain space clashed, opposing decades in a row, but they cared and never lost confidence in the return of democracy and the present sympathy in America, considered possible for their salvation.

Nicolae Brînzeu – un duhovnic-cărturar în mijlocul mirenilor

 
Abstract: Considered undesirable by the atheist communist regime, Nicolae Brînzeu, a brilliant scholar and theologian, was arrested on 28 October 1948, together with the other Greek-Catholic hierarchs of Lugoj, Bishop Ioan Bălan and Canon Iosif Vezoc. He was assigned to compulsory residence at Neamţ and Căldăruşani monasteries and was imprisoned at Sighet. After his release, he was subjected to compulsory residence in Călăraşi, then in Orăştie. In 1954, he was allowed to return home, where he passed away on 30 December 1962. As a theologian, he published many studies on dogmatics, Christian books and schoolbooks for the students of the Greek-Catholic institutes.

„Cruciatul” Vlad Țepeș și organizarea armatei țării sale și a sistemului defensiv al acesteia

 
Abstract. When we refer to the remarkable merits of Vlad the Impaler as the head of state and of the armies, we cannot ignore his taking over a political-military conception that has its origin in the old Byzantine imperial tradition of crusade, Dracula being, undoubtedly, the first of our voivodes who rose to fight against the Ottoman Turks after the entry of Byzantium under the rule of Sultan Muhammad II the Conqueror. Of course, he also made this takeover because he considered himself the rightful follower of the anti-Ottoman struggle of the Basileus and the great Romanian rulers, especially after the death of John Hunyadi, "the last great European crusader". Seeking to strengthen and protect the royal authority and the economic and social-political bases of the anti-Ottoman resistance, Vlad the Impaler took numerous measures to strengthen his army, making full use of the revenues of the kingdom for its endowment and training, according to the requirements of the time.  Being "agile and capable as possible in the military affairs", a fact acknowledged even by his mortal enemies, the Ottoman Turks, the fierce Romanian voivode "increased and strengthened the military institution with people raised from the people to small ranks of boyars, exempt from taxes and benefits in exchange for military jobs". Dracula also paid special attention to the defense system of his country, strengthening him "with fortress cities, outpost forts on the probable directions of invasion and fortified monasteries".

Cacova sau Grădinari de Caraş. Însemnări monografice despre un habitat rural din Banatul Montan. Din preistorie până în veacul al XV-lea (III)

 
Abstract: The archaeological discoveries and information from various sources attest the continuity of Dacian and Dacian-Roman settlements in the miners’ communities of the Caraș region. Money treasures dating back to the Dacian times were discovered in the area. Banat is considered the province with the most pronounced Roman character. In the Middle Ages, a rural civilisation under Byzantine jurisdiction prevailed in these places. Here the Romanians had autonomous institutions, sedium valachicalium, congregatio generalis, courts and general assemblies.

Variașul în cărți poștale ilustrate. Istoricul cartofiliei locale (1920-1947)

 
Abstract: In the inter-war period, the importance and circulation of illustrated postcards decreased. The declining tendency continued in the post-war years. Today, postcards have become useless. The ten types of local inter-war postcards identified so far have several characteristics: poor quality paper and print, no decorative elements, the dramatic decrease of the number of editors etc. Nevertheless, the relatively large number of illustrated postcards put Variaș on top of the list of inter-war localities with printed postcards. Editor E. Winkler made a special contribution – two thirds of the Variaș inter-war postcard types belong to him. The local German community was involved in marketing the postcards. A factor that facilitated their circulation was the purchasing power of the inhabitants of Variaș in the inter-war period.

Revolte româno-sârbe în graniţa bănăţeană la începutul secolului al XIX-lea

 
Abstract: In 1807, in a company of the Romanian-Illyrian Border Regiment at Kruščica, acts of insubordination occurred when the border guards refused to do overtime cordon activities. The movement against the Habsburg administration of the Romanians and the Serbians north of the Danube was also influenced by the anti-Ottoman Serbian revolt south of the Danube, led by Karađorđe. Karađorđe had connections with the Romanian and Serbian leaders and encouraged them to fight for social and national justice. Given the circumstances, common revolts of the Romanian and Serbians broke out on both sides of the Danube.

Societatea „Kandia” în prima parte a regimului comunist

 
Abstract: The „Kandia” factory in Timisoara, has passed the end of World War II, as well as the entire romanian society through a radical process of change.After the communists came to power, the „Kandia” factory passed into state ownership. Immediately after nationalization with „Kandia”, three other western factories in the country were merged. The „Kandia” factory was integrated into the centralized economy thought by the communist party and submitted to the first five-year term, which proved not to be a success as expected.

Oameni de ieri și de azi (4) Colecționarul bănățean Constantin Gruescu

 
Abstract: Constantin Gruiescu, a mining technician and a famous mineral collector from Ocna de Fier, was born at Dognecea on 12 April 1924 and died in the same village on 22 January 2020. In 1950, he opened an Aesthetic Minerals Museum in Dognecea. Today the museum enjoys world recognition. The collection includes over 2,000 exhibits, priceless crystals and minerals, some of them unique.
Constantin Gruiescu wrote several books and was the character in a number of works that highlight his hobby. He was awarded many titles and honorary distinctions for his work and enthusiasm.

Colonelul Sébastiani – scurte note de drum prin Banat, Transilvania și Țara Românească

 
Abstract: After the Amiens Truce (1802, March 25 and 27), France was seeking a way to split the alliance between the Ottomanic Porte and Great Britain, to find means for improving his commercial interests in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea and in the Black Sea. In this regard, First-Consul Napoléon Bonaparte sent in the spring of 1802 his comrade in arms and countryman form Corsica, Colonel Horace Sébastiani, in an exploratory mission to Constantinople. During his journey form Paris to the main city of the Ottoman Empire, passing through Vienna and Buda, Colonel Sébastiani (later on General and 1840 promoted to the rank of Fieldmarshall of France), took short notes on his travel. On his way to Constantinople, Sébastiani passed from Hungary to Banat and its main city of Timișoara, then stopped at Sibiu in Transylvani and, across the Carpathian Mountains, spent thereafter several days in Bucharest, the capital-city of Wallachia. Therefrom he reached finally, travelling through Bulgaria, his goal. In his short notes, Colonel Sébastiani is emphasizing on different military matters, but at the same time he is interested in the human and material environement. It is to be pointed out, that during his stay in Bucharest, Sébastiani met with the Reigning-Prince Michael Suțu and with Alexander Moruzi, the former one, as well as with several members of the high local nobility (boyards), imbued to his surprise by the French culture. As a perspicuous observer of men and facts, Colonel Sébastiani summarizes in a surprisingly accurate way the pith of the Fanariotic regime in Wallachia and Moldavia.   

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